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1. A skier has fallen heavily and is floating in the water. They say they are ok except for slight back pain and some tingling sensation in both legs.
Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Injury may include: Loss of sensation or tingling in hands or feet, loss of movement or impaired movement below site of injury, pain and tenderness.
Your actions would include:
a. Advise them to stay still, send for help and where possible support the person in the water;
b. Get them to swim to the bank to help stretch out the back muscles;
c.Lift them out of the water and placing them in a comfortable position;
d.Assisting them into the boat for a rest.
2. Your Observer is looking very unwell and complaining of severe pain in the chest that radiates through their neck and down their left arm.
Signs of a Stroke – Facial weakness, Arm weakness, Speech difficulty, Time to Act (FAST).
Which of the following is the most appropriate action?
a. Ring the local doctor then call an ambulance;
b. Follow DRSABCD, including keeping them calm and loosen tight clothing;
c. Have them do some exercise to relieve the pain;
d. Ask someone to drive them to hospital.
3. Someone has slipped down the bank and possibly sprained their ankle. There is pain and swelling and they are having trouble moving their foot.
How can you help?
a. Elevate the leg and apply a hot pack to ease the pain;
b. Rest and support the limb using soft padding/bandage and apply a cold pack;
c. Give the casualty pain relief to ease the pain;
d. Tell them to go for a swim.
4. After placing someone in the recovery position, to assess their breathing status, you can Look, Listen and Feel for signs of breathing.
Where could you check?
a. Look and feel for movement of the upper/lower chest;
b. Tilt the head back and pinch their nostrils;
c. Listen and feel for escape of air from the nose/mouth;
d. Both a & c
5. Your Observer is untangling the ropes and their arm comes in contact with a hot section of the motor.
The best initial treatment for a burn would include:
a. Applying a clean dressing and ointment to the burn;
b. Remove anything that may be stuck to the burn;
c. Hold burnt area under cool running water for 20min;
d. Directly apply ice to the area that is burnt.
6. How should you best assist someone suffering from Shock?
Signs & symptoms of Shock – weak/rapid pulse, cold/clammy skin, rapid breathing, faintness, nausea.
Following the principles of DRSABCD, some management techniques could include -
a. Offer to take them for a drive in the car;
b. Loosen tight clothing around neck/chest;
c. Maintain body warmth but do not use direct heat;
d. Make them a warm drink.
7. While standing in line waiting for “Breatho” one of your teammates complains of feeling dizzy and has a severe headache. You are aware they suffer from Type 1 Diabetes.
- Signs & symptoms of HIGH BLOOD SUGAR may be: tiredness, thirsty, blurred vision, hot dry skin.
- Signs & symptoms of LOW BLOOD SUGAR may be: weakness, confused, aggressive, hunger, headache, sweating.
What can you do?
a. If they have medication, ask if they need assistance administering it;
b. If no improvement call triple zero (000);
c. Give the person sugar, such as fruit juice or a soft drink (NOT ‘diet’ drinks), jellybeans or glucose tablets;
d. All of the above.
8. Which is Australia’s primary emergency service number.
b. Triple Zero (000)
9. A severe Asthma attack can be life threatening. If you come across someone who appears to be having an Asthma attack, check if they have used their reliever. See if they can take slow, deep breaths. If they have a persistent cough, cannot speak comfortably, are unable to get enough air and have obvious difficulty breathing.
a. Ask the person to have a lie down and rest;
b. Assist with giving them their medication and immediately call triple zero (000);
c. Drive the patient to the local doctor’s clinic;
d. Take them for a swim in a heated pool.
10. After a racing incident, a competitor has been in the water for some time. They are ok with no obvious injuries however they could be suffering Hypothermia.
Signs & symptoms may include: feeling cold, shivering, clumsiness and slurred speech.
DO NOT rub affected areas OR use radiant heat such as fire or electric heaters OR give alcohol.
After gently removing their wet clothes, to warm the patient, you should:
a. Ask them to go for a jog to warm up;
b. Give them some alcohol;
c. Warm the patient in a sleeping bag or in an emergency blanket;
d. Stand the patient in the sun.
11. An adult patient is unconscious and shows no signs of life. Commence the principles of DRSABCD.
The correct action for giving CPR is:
a. 1 breath: 5 compressions: rate of 12 cycles per minute;
b. 30 breaths: 2 compressions: rate of 100 compressions per minute;
c. 2 breaths: 15 Compressions: rate of 20 cycles per minute;
d. 30 compressions: 2 breaths: rate of 100 compressions per minute.
12. A skier has hit their head on the ski, they are ok apart from a bump on the head. Upon returning to the bank they appear a bit disorientated.
Signs & symptoms of Concussion may include: loss of consciousness, dazed/loss of memory, blurred vision, vomiting and headache.
They may have Concussion, what could you do:
a. Check their airway;
b. Apply a cold compress and offer a cool drink;
c. Lie them on the ground, with their feet raised;
d. Assist them to lie down, keep head/shoulders raised and seek medical attention.
13. You are following the principles of DRSABCD and whilst you are performing CPR, the patient has regained a weak/irregular pulse and starts breathing.
Next you would:
a. Continue the chest compressions;
b. Place the patient into the recovery position;
c. Check for a response by gently shaking the patient;
d. Stop the chest compressions but continue with Expired Air Resuscitation.
14. Upon arrival at the boat ramp one morning, you find a person lying face down in the water.
Your priority at the scene would be to:
a. To check for a pulse;
b. Check their airway;
c. Check for dangers to yourself and others;
d. Wrap them in a warm blanket.
15. It is a particularly hot day and your Observer is feeling fatigued, dizzy, hot and has had a headache. They may also be heavily sweating. They could be suffering from Heat Exhaustion.
Management may include –
a. Giving them a beer to cool them down;
b. Tell them to go for a swim in the river;
c. Lie them down in a cool place and loosen tight clothing;
d. Go for another run up the river.
16. A spectator has had a suspected heart attack. An ambulance has been called but whilst waiting the person collapses and becomes unconscious.
Signs & symptoms of heart attack vary but may include: chest pain that can start suddenly, or develop over time and get progressively worse, shortness of breath, sweating, dizziness You should immediately:
a. Place them in the recovery position;
b. Loosen their clothing and be prepared to commence CPR;
c. Complete a Vital Signs Survey;
d. Follow DRSABCD and sit or lie the patient down.
17. Someone cuts their leg on a boat prop and has a deep laceration to their leg, it is bleeding heavily.
You would initially:
a. Apply a tourniquet and call an ambulance;
b. Clean the wound with antiseptic and bandage the entire limb firmly;
c. Apply direct pressure over or close to the wound, elevate and call triple zero (000);
d. Run the area under cool water until the bleeding stops.